Traditionally the design of foundations and turbines has been undertaken separately, with the required design loads and interfaces defined within the specification of each item. This approach is robust but has the risk of double contingency being applied, as safety factors in the specification of the turbine design loads are multiplied by safety factors within the design of the foundation. As turbines have increased in size and capacity, the operational loads and foundation costs have correspondingly increased. This creates an increasing desire to integrate the design of nacelle, tower and foundations in order to safely reduce materials.
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